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Friday, June 15

  1. page Using Experiential Exercises and Simulations edited Research on Using Experiential Exercises and Simulations Montablbano, L & Ige W. D. (2011). P…
    Research on Using Experiential Exercises and Simulations
    Montablbano, L & Ige W. D. (2011). Performance in the Classroom: A Teaching Tool. Communication Teacher. (25:2) pp 100-107.
    "Giving voice to or disclosing their own stories allows them to become more self-aware, to understand others, and to approach diverse and sensitive topics carefully that may otherwise go mute, on a deeper, more engaging level.The treatment of self-disclosure in the classroom can be rewarding when it is conducted in a non-threatening, non-judgmental atmosphere of trust. This trust takes time and commitment to develop in the teacher-student relationship. Once established, the personal narrative exercise can be an engaging experience for all in the class."
    Cramer, E P. (2012). Using Experiential Exercises to Teach about Diversity, Oppression, and Social Justice. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(1), 1-13.
    "Consider students' own prior experiences, and be aware of the emotional impact of experiential learning projects, especially when dealing with sensitive issues" (Cramer 2012, p. 10).
    Gorton, W., & Havercroft, J. (2012). Using historical simulations to teach political theory. Journal Of Political Science Education, 8(1), 50-68.
    Something I thought was beneficial from this is that students would write emails and ask questions to the professor in character of whoever they were being in the simulation.
    **//http://blog.ted.com/2010/03/17/gaming_can_make///**
    In the history aspect of the article it interesting linked the experientials to the gaming industry though it did say that the first experientials were non-computerized.
    Sanyal, R. and Neves, J. (1999)
 “Teaching contentious cross-cultural issues through an experiential exercise.” Journal of Teaching in International Business. 10(2), pgs. 17-30.
    “…the teaching of the material, use of examples, and nature of students assignments, implicitly endorses the polycentric approach. However, there may be little effort to understand, relate to, or empathize with the foreign culture, or getting into the shoes of the other person” (pg. 20).
    http://kristinandjerry.name/jerry_teaching/work_sample_2/Work%20Sample%20Materials/Experiential%20Education%20Readings/Student%20Centered%20Learning%20In%20Experiential%20Education%20-%20Estes.pdf
    “The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of inconsistencies between espoused values, and values in practice, effecting teacher and student power relationships during the facilitation of experiential education programs. Awareness is a first step towards meaningful change, and this article is a catalyst for generating more conversations about this issue.”
    Rose, J., Paisley, K. (2012): White Privilege in Experiential Education: A Critical Reflection, Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 34:2, 136-154.
    “I engaged debriefing and processing techniques as a form of communicative domination consistent with a teacher-centered rather than student-centered education. By (re)interpreting the students’ comments through my own lenses, I painted my reality as if it were everyone’s reality. My interpretation of our experiences was privileged in our group’s discourses. I failed to understand how my experiences and suggestions came from a racialized experience that was rarely, if ever, acknowledged in my upbringing and development as a person, as a professional, and as a White man. I saw my own personal and professional experiences as being normative and successful without any cultural, social, political, or racial privileges.” (138)
    Wirkala, C. Kuhn D. 2011. Problem- Based Learning in K-12 Education: Is it Effective and How Does it Achieve its Effects.American Educational Research Journal. 48(5), pp. 1157-1186
    " Far from being ‘‘unstructured,’’ its advocates claim, good PBL instruction requires complex, carefully designed instructional protocols, including well-designed scaffolding during each stage of the process (Davies, 2000; Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007). Schwartz and Bransford (1998) and Schwartz and Martin (2004) in fact advocate a method that begins with one or more problems but integrates segments of direct instruction at specific junctures at which students have gained sufficient experience to make use of it" (pg. 1158).
    Scott, R M. (2000). Developing StoryWeb Units That Integrate the Internet and Social Studies.
    "Such a unit engages students personally in living history. Differentiating content, product and process enhances the learners motivation by increasing their choice and control over their own learning. The assumption of characters assist students in gaining perspective and empathy as they create their own understanding of the events of the War of Independence."
    Cramer, E., Natsuko, R., Nguyen, P. (2012) Using Experiential Exercises to Teach about Diversity, Oppression, and Social Justice. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(1), 1-13.
    "The self discovery model is widely used in cross-cultural learning, particularly in order to increase students' awareness of their own beliefs and attitudes toward other cultural groups. Through activities such as group discussions and case studies, students reflect upon and become more sensitive to their cultural values, biases, thoughts and feelings." (Cramer et al. 2012, pg. 5)
    Wehbi, S. (2011). Reflections on Experiential Teaching Methods: Linking the Classroom to Practice. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 31(5), 493-504.
    "In their experience-based learning model, Gibbons and Gray (2004) proposed four interconnected components: (a) integration of theory and practice, classroom and field, (b) critical thinking skills, (c) collaboration, and (d) self-directed and independent learning." (p.493)
    "most students expressed a sense of empowerment and hopefulness that extended beyond the limits of" (p. 494)
    Dreis, J. (2008). Recasting the Senior Year. The Education Digest, 74(2), 34-38.
    "Besides feeling entitled as se- niors yet bored with familiar school routines, they acknowledged feel- ings of uncertainty and confusion about the future. Many expressed a desire for greater independence, new experiences, a voice in what they learned, cin opportunity to lead and give back to the community, more interaction with adults, and connections with the real world. Seniors are in a profound stage of differentiation as they prepare to make the transition from childhood to adulthood."
    **//http://jme.sagepub.com/content/29/6/888.short//**
    Experiential exercises result in growth that is difficult to achieve with the use of a simple text, to not say impossible. The article is composed of various experiential exercises using poetry and visual arts
    **//http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED501311.pdf//**
    "Critical thinking skills are most effectively developed and learned when they are taught in conjunction or embedded with content, not in isolation" (p. 9)
    Qualters, D M. (2010). Bringing the Outside in: Assessing Experiential Education. New directions for teaching and learning, (124), 55-62.
    "However, to gather valuable data about learning during an experience, we must understand the process of the learning; we must reflect on it and reorganize the learning to make students aware of what they have actually learned and how it connects with previous learning and discipline theory."(p. 58)
    Davis, M. & Guthrie, J. (2003). Motivating struggling readers in middle school through an engagement model of classroom practice. In Reading & writing quarterly. 19(1) pgs.59-85
    "When students have experienced a gradual expansion of topic, content, and text over a time period of four weeks or more, they become authentically motivated to read in a domain as broadly construed as science (Guthrie, 1999)."
    Romero Zaldivar, V. (2012). Monitoring Student Progress Using Virtual Appliances: A Case Study. Computers & education, 58(4), 1058-1067.
    “When moving away from traditional lecture-based teaching models into active learning strategies, the level of student participation increases. In active learning scenarios the student is at the center of the process, and the level of interaction among students, students and instructors, and students with course resources is essential for the success of the process” (p. 1058).

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  2. page Parent Involvement edited Creating Community Alliances, Working with Parents and Families Resource Packet Warren, S R. (20…
    Creating Community Alliances, Working with Parents and Families
    Resource Packet
    Warren, S R. (2011). Preparing Urban Teachers to Partner with Families and Communities. School Community Journal, 21(1), 95-112.
    "This class really opened my eyes as to how much or how important it is to involve families and the community and how big of a role they play in our students’ lives.…Now I really am stepping back and looking to see; how much I am including my students’ families?" ' (p.104)
    Ferlazzo, Larry. (2011). "Involvement or Engagement?" Educational Leadership 68 (8) p 10-14.
    " To create the kinds of school-family partnerships that raise student achievement, improve local communities, and increase public support, we need to understand the difference between family involvement and family engagement. One of the dictionary definitions of involve is "to enfold or envelope," whereas one of the meanings of engage is "to come together and interlock." Thus, involvement implies doing to; in contrast, engagement implies doing with."
    School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action By Joyce Epstein http://www.hhh.umn.edu/img/assets/10233/chfivef.pdf
    “Help families with parenting skills by providing information about children’s developmental stages and home environment considerations that support children as students.” (108)
    Behnke, A. and Kelly, C. "Creating Programs to Help Latino Youth Thrive at School: The Influence of Latino Parent Involvement Programs." Journal of Extension 49 (1)1-11.
    "Rather than simply a translation of a program developed for English-speaking families, these programs use culturally appropriate activities and specially crafted concepts that were specifically designed to meet the needs of Spanish-speaking parents and youth."
    De Gaetano, Y. (2007). The role of culture in engaging latino parents' involvement in school. In Urban Education. Vol 42, pp 145-162.
    "The same teacher who had made the disparaging remarks about the educational level of parents began to be enthusiastic about having a parent come into her classroom. There was a realization that knowledge is not necessarily dependent on schooling."
    Auerbach, Susan. (2007): From moral supporters to struggling advocates: Reconceptualizing parent roles in education through the experience of working-class families of color: Urban Education. 42(3), 250-283.
    In the article, the author proposes that the traditional model of parent involvement fails to acknowledge the ways in which parent roles in educgvggyfrrrrrrzation and home-school relationships are a reflection of broader social inequalities that affect students. In addition, the author acknowledges that the conception of mainstream parent involvement research stresses school-centered conceptions of parent roles with insufficient attention to “culturally appropriate definitions and family centered practices”. In this article, the author describes a study that shows the importance of broadening our notions of what parental involvement looks like. We need to step away from the model-class definition of what parent involvement looks like and understand that parental support comes in many different ways.
    Sanders, M. G., & Lewis, K. C. (2005). Building bridges towards excellence: community involvement in high schools. The High School Journal, 88(3), 1-9.
    "Prioritize process, permit time, and promote community ownership."
    This article looked at 3 demographically different high schools that were successful in having implemented parent involvement and relationships with community businesses and organizations. The main message that I will take from this article is that it takes time and that dedication is important. "..but it has to grow from something. The roots need to be there." That comes from an interview with a principal who warns not to tackle such a huge project right away. It's better to start small with whatever you are trying to build so that you have a soli foundation. All of these high schools said they started with something small like one parent night once a year...then it was two a year...then then involved a women's group.
    Jasis, P. M., & Ordonez-Jasis, R. (2012). Latino parent involvement: Examining commitment and empowerment in schools. Urban Education, 47(1), 65-89. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042085911416013
    “It was clear throughout these parents’ process of school participation that their engagement increased and became more meaningful within school contexts where their parental roles, their individual and family aspirations, and life experiences and knowledge were respected and incorporated into the school communities as valuable educational contributions” (Jasis & Ordonez-Jasis, 2012, Pg. 84).
    Wang, Y. (2009). Language, Parents' Involvement, and Social Justice: The Fight for Maintaining Minority Home Language: A Chinese-Language Case Study. Multicultural education, 16(4), 13-18.
    “I selected this process because initially I thought of parent's involvement in social justice issues in relation to their child's education in a deficit manner. I automatically thought that because I am coming from a social justice perspective, that I would automatically have parent's that resisted my ideology. However I met a young lady at a high school and she was making a bunch of comments of the corruption of the government during a history lesson. I asked her where she learned all those ideas from and she said her parents are union organizers and activists. This really flipped my notion of parents in the social justice movement. I chose this article to see how parents can actually be allies in the pursuit of social justice education rather than the opposition. ”
    http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6467/is_1_51/ai_n29250431/
    "Increasing parents' autonomy and decision making in setting treatment goals is one of the major outcomes of parent-professional partnerships (Friesen & Huff, 1996; Osher & Osher, 2002). Professionals engage parents in sharing responsibility, in developing goals, and in improving services for children with SED. The expectation has been that professionals and parents working together can achieve better outcomes for children and youths with SED (DeChillo, Koren, & Schultze, 1994; Osher & Osher). Brunet (1991) defined these new collaborations as "a process to reach goals that cannot be achieved acting singly" (p. 6)".
    Warren, M. (2005). Communities and schools: A new view of urban education reform. Harvard Educational Review, 75(2).
    “School districts and leaders have struggled to improve schooling in low-income communities, largely in isolation from community-development initiatives. In particular cases, gains have been made within the four walls of schools through reform strategies. Attempting school reform in isolation from community development, however, is problematic for a number of reasons” (Warren, p. 133 2005).
    Fann, A. (2009). Parent Involvement in the College Planning Process: A Case Study of P-20 Collaboration. Journal of Hispanic higher education, 8(4), 374-393.
    This article focuses mostly on Latino parents who are first generation U.S. residents/citizens. The article focuses on the idea of "social capital"--that people who go to college know the ropes and can help others apply to and go to college as well. The article focuses on having positive connections from the high schools and colleges to the parents through partnerships and developed relationships to get information to the parents if they don't already have that information. This study took place at UCLA where the college developed outreach programs to the parents of prospective students. This outreach program took the shape of 4 nights of information sessions which focused on different aspects of college life--from finances to applying. The workshops were presented in both English and Spanish, making them widely accessible.
    Ma, T. (2012). Peer Victimization and Parental Psychological Control in Adolescence. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 40(3), 413-424.
    "Schwartz et al. (1997) found that exposure to psychologically controlling parenting is associated with both aggression and victimization in boys, and Rigby (1994) found that female adolescents categorized as victims tended to rate their parents as exercising more control and less positive affect" (414).
    Cole, A G. (2010). School-community partnerships and community-based education: A case study of a novice program. Penn GSE perspectives on urban education, 7(1), 15-26.
    “A strong advocate of breaking down traditional barriers between schools and com- munities, Human Services Program Facilitator Tom Spillings explained, ‘Imagine a field trip that was a service opportunity that was repeated seven or eight times or maybe in the future weekly for maybe 30 weeks. The ties you build, the understanding you have of adult working relationships... that’s what you want, that’s what you want your high school to do, to be a partner with your community. That’s what it should be.’”
    http://bul.sagepub.com/content/85/627/33.full.pdf+html
    One of the factors that the authors identify is that schools with a high sense of community share a set of common values: “They share a common belief in the kind of people students are capable of becoming, and express that belief in the day-to-day activities of the school” (p.35). This to me was one of the things that schools I have worked in lack the most yet really is the core of a sense of community. Some of the other factors were commitment which the authors stated is willingness to go beyond expectation and a sense of belonging. Overall the article was interesting and provided some good points about building community in schools.
    http://childparenting.about.com/cs/parentinvolvement/a/parentschool.htm
    This article focuses on the positive affects of parent involvement. Reading the article I came across information that I was already familiar with; students who have their parents involved in school have higher grades, higher test scores, and less behavioral issues. I realize that parent involvement is very essential to a students growing and learning process. In the article a quote that caught my attention was: “When parents hear that they need to be more involved in their child’s school, the first reaction is sometimes a sense of guilt that they aren’t more active in the local Parent-Teacher Organization.” Thinking about the schools that I have worked in and looking at demographics, I don’t want my students parents to feel guilty. I understand from speaking to a few parents that they are single and working two jobs to buy the bare necessities.
    De Gaetano, Y (2007). "The Role of Culture in Engaging Latino Parents' Involvement in School" In Urban Education 42(2)
    "Our workshops were designed in ways that began with the personal and had relevance to parents’lives. The workshop topics then moved to identifying and utilizing the skills and knowledge that the parents possessed to help children at school or at home. The workshops were always designed to be experiential and focused on families and children." (158)
    Wimer, C., & Gunther, R. (2006). Summer success: Challenges and strategies in creating quality academically focused summer programs (Issues and Opportunities in Out-of-School Time Evaluation No. 9). Retrieved January 1, 2007, from http://www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/projects/afterschool/resources/issuebrief9.html
    "An inclusive partnership is one that involves families, schools, students, and community leaders in the planning process. This encourages all partners to become invested in and take ownership of their contribution to the initiative. It also increases the likelihood of developing a high-quality, effective implementation plan. In a successful partnership, partners have shared aspirations and specific desired outcomes, a willingness to be flexible as an initiative evolves and new learning takes place, and a commitment to sharing resources, such as personnel, time, money, meeting space, or others. Forming strategic alliances with various organizations and people
    in the community can result in stronger implementation plans and increase the likelihood of producing good results.(7)"
    Scanlan, M. (2012). "Cos Um It like Put a Picture in My Mind of What I Should Write": An Exploration of How Home-School Partnership Might Support the Writing of Lower-Achieving Boys. Support for learning, 27(1), 4-10.
    The article addressed the use of younger students bringing home-items to school to facilitate writing production. Low-achieving writers responded well to the voluntary insertion of home items into their school world. In this way, the article was more geared towards K-5.
    Brooks, S M. (2009). A case study of school-community alliances that rebuilt a community. School community journal, 19(2), 59-80.
    The article looks at the impact of desegregation on African American communities from a standpoint that is rarely discussed. Desegregation caused what the author refers to as "social dislocation" because not only was there a mass exodus of middle-class African American families to White middle class neighborhoods, but 91,009 African American principals and teachers were fired from the newly desegregated schools and replaced with White educators. The issue with these actions were the relationships and norms that existed in the Traditional African American Schools no longer were shared by both parties, and this created a disconnect between the communities and the schools. "The problem is that relationships traditionally formed between home and school in the African American community differed from parent-school relationships promoted in integrated schools" (Brooks, 2009, p. 2).
    Ferlazzo, L. (2011). Involvement or Engagement?. Educational Leadership, 68(8), 10.
    "Thus involvement implies doing to; in contrast, engagement implies doing with" (Ferlazzo, 2011, pg.12). Although the article does not provide concrete strategies for engaging families in school, it does clarify the differences between family involvement and engagement. The article emphasizes the need for schools and educators to work with and actively listen to families. The article challenges the one way communication that is so often practiced by schools and instead encourages a model of dialogue that allows for schools and parents to work together to improve not just student achievement but community empowerment.
    Wilson, M. Rene. (2011). Taking on the perspective of the other: Understanding parents’ and teachers’ perceptions of parent involvement in students’ educational experiences. University at Albany, State University of New York
    It (the research) offers initial findings of why some parents may not be involved in volunteering activities, and why some teachers are not open to having parents participate- The accounts of both parents and teachers have provided the educational community a more authentic picture of parent involvement as it relates to their individual lives (P. 242)

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    5:14 pm
  3. page Youth Participatory Action Research, Community Activism, Gangs edited Week 5: Youth Participatory Action Research, Community Activism, Gangs Akom, A.A. (2007). Free sp…
    Week 5: Youth Participatory Action Research, Community Activism, Gangs
    Akom, A.A. (2007). Free spaces: excavating race, class, and gender among urban schools and communities. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. 20(6), 611-616.
    "I define free spaces as places that share some of the following characteristics: a sense of shared bonds, places to revive one’s culture, places to rejuvenate our spirits, participatory and democratic spaces, places to civically engage–debate–dialogue, places to form social networks, places to educationally achieve, places to form democratic or revolutionary visions of social change, places to recover and enjoy group identity, places to cultivate self and communal respect, cooperation, and community uplift" (613).
    Baumann, P. (2012). “Civic engagement through digital citizenship: Engaging youth in active, participatory citizenship through digital media.” The Progress of Education Reform. 13(1), Pgs. 1-6.
    What interested me most was when the article concluded that “[b]roadband availability, accessibility and affordability are the determining factors separating youth who are digital natives and youth who are not. If policymakers do not address these factors, non-digital native youth, who are largely poor and largely minority, will continue to be less likely to be civically engaged than their digital native peers” (Pg. 5).
    Cammarota, J (2011). From Hopelessness to Hope: Social Justice Pedagogy in Urban Education and Youth Development.Urban Education, 46(4), p828-844.
    "To overcome the impediments preventing the attainment of youth assets, young people must adopt a social justice awareness, which centers on understanding how social and economic institutions, policies, and practices can either stall or promote healthy youth development outcomes. Awareness in SJYD is actually comprised of a set of awarenesses that constitutes critical consciousness focused on systematic injustices and actions required to overcome social and economic oppression. There are three steps or stages in the set of awarenesses involved with social justice in youth development: self, community, and global” (p. 833).
    Cammarota, Julio and Fine, Michelle. (2008). Revolutionizing Education: Youth Participatory Action Research in Motion. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
    “The knowledge that human agency constructs reality is power, a power that has very specific education and development outcomes. Young people possessing critical knowledge of the true workings of their social contexts see themselves as intelligent and capable” (p. 7).
    Gebo, E., Boyes-Watson, C., &Pinto-Wilson, S. (2010). Reconceptualizing organizational change in the Comprehensive Gang Model. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 166–173.
    The quote that was most impactful was “Decker and Van Winkle (1996) pointed out that most gang initiatives have attempted to address the proximate causes of gang involvement and activity, such as lack of supervision and job skills, while the fundamental causes, [unemployment, racism, and lack of opportunities], are often left out of the mix of what any criminal justice-community partnership can achieve.” (p. 1).
    Golod, F. (2008). Civil Rights and Social Justice: A Path to Engagement and Transformation. Horace, 24(3).
    “They also know what needs to be done to change the picture; action is central to the curriculum. It is the dynamic interplay between learning and doing that makes the Family School pedagogy so compelling.” (pg. 2)
    Hartnett, S J. (2010). Communication, Social Justice, and Joyful Commitment. Western journal of communication, 74(1), 68-93.
    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10570310903463778
    "Feeding off of grants and contracts from such ‘‘interests,’’ communication scholars were implicitly embedded within the political imperatives and intellectual frameworks of the Cold War state, hence functioning less as bearers of brave new truths and teachers of engaged citizens than as clerks for the massive machinery that spewed out generations of dogmatic anticommunism, love of the Bomb, cheerful consumerism, and unquestioned U.S. international dominance." (Hartnett, 2010, p. 72)
    Irizarry, J. G. (2009). Reinvigorating Multicultural Education Through Youth Participatory Action Research. Multicultural Perspectives,11(4), 194-199.
    "YPAR challenges the traditional roles of youth as passive recipients of education and consumers of knowledge by repositioning them as active learners and knowledge producers....A significant feature of many YPAR projects is that they engage participants in multigenerational collaboratives across explicitly named lines of difference- including age, race, gender, social class, and educational level, among others. In addition to fostering collaboration among diverse individuals, much of the content explored within YPAR reflects a commitment to promoting cross-cultural understanding" (Irizarry, 2009, pg. 197).
    Katz, C M. (2011). Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations. Crime and delinquency, 57(3), 377-407.
    "For example, gang scholars have long argued that problems associated with poverty, economic strain, social disorganization, and population mobility are root causes of gangs, gang membership, and gang crime (Spergel, 1995)."
    Koffman, S., Ray, A., Berg, S., Covington, L., Albarran, N. M., & Vasquez, M. (2009). Impact of a comprehensive whole child intervention and prevention program among youths at risk of gang involvement and other forms of delinquency. Children & Schools, 31(4), 239-245. http://search.proquest.com/professional/docview/61837742?accountid=14512; **http://lysander.naswpressonline.org/vl=5062665/cl=58/nw=1/rpsv/cw/nasw/01627961/v31n4/s6/p239**
    "A major premise of the ripple effects program is that if young people who have undergone personal trauma and social discrimination are expected not to drop out of school or to numb their pain with alcohol or drugs, then schools and communities must provide training not only in skills to survive the trauma, but also in skills to change unjust social systems that are the source of much of the students’ pain (Koffman, 2009, p. 242).
    Kurubacak, G. (2007). The Power of Problem-Based Learning for Building Democratic Adult and At-Risk Youth Communications.
    **http://tinyurl.com/cfntw2l**
    Lockwood, D. (2007). Violence Among Middle School and High School Students: Analysis and Implications for Prevention. National
    Institute of Justice: Washington, D.C
    https://ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/166363.pdf
    “The analysis confirmed that the opening moves involved such actions as minor slights and teasing, and the incidents took place largely among young people who knew each other. What is perhaps most troubling is the finding that the students’ violent behavior did not stem from lack of values. Rather, it was grounded in a well-developed set of values that holds such behavior to be a justifiable, commonsense way to achieve certain goals” (Lockwood, 1997, 1).
    Madan, A., Mrug, S., & Windle, M. (2011). Brief report: Delinquency and community violence exposure explain internalizing problems in early adolescent gang members?. Journal of Adolescence, 34(5), 1093-1096.
    "It is possible that the adolescents’ young age or desensitization to negative emotions contributed to the lack of association between gang membership and anxiety and depression."
    McIntyre, A (2000). Constructing Meaning About Violence, School, and Community: Participatory Action Research with Urban Youth. The Urban Review, 32 (2), 123-154.
    "Through the use of PAR, we problematized those borders and created spaces for young urban youth to “give testimony” and bear witness to the experiences of what Ignacio Mart´ın-Bar´o (1994) called “normal abnormality” (p. 125)—a state of being/living where people come to anticipate living with multiple forms of sanctioned and unsanctioned violence, marginalization, and oppression, all of which inform and shape their daily lives."
    Medina, J. (2012). Mentoring Siblings of Gang Members: A Template for Reaching Families of Gang Members?. Children & society, 26(1), 14-24.
    http://ucelinks.cdlib.org:8888/sfx_local?sid=CAPTURE:CAPTURE&month=1&issn=0951%2D0605&issue=1&atitle=Mentoring%20Siblings%20of%20Gang%20Members%3A%20A%20Template%20for%20Reaching%20Families%20of%20Gang%20Members%3F&title=Children%20%26%20society&volume=26&genre=article&date=2012&spage=14&epage=24&aulast=Medina&aufirst=Juanjo&auinit=J
    “…it would be reasonable to suspect that projects like these will not have a long-lasting sizable impact on offending or gang involvement. The family, individual, school or ecological risk factors for these outcomes are usually not removed by the intervention. And the direct buffering impact of mentoring is normally over once the scheme finishes. In addition, the potential buffering effect that new social bonds that may have developed as a consequence of networking and recreational activities carried out are unlikely to be maintained if families do not have the means, the time or the motivation to sustain these activities. As we encountered in this case, despite efforts at increased formal integration of preventative resources, serious problems remain in relation to access to after-school activities” (Medina, p.22)
    Mediratta, K. (2002). Organizing for School Reform: How Communities Are Finding Their Voices and Reclaiming Their Public Schools. Institute for Education and Social Policy. New York, NY.
    The one quote that resonated most with me was when the author stated that the SCYEA "helps students analyze the political structure of schools in south Los Angeles and learn vital organizing skills for political activism such as public speaking, data analysis, agitation methods, media outreach, and issue developments."
    Miller, H. & Barnes, J.C. & Hartley, R. (2009). "Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context." Crime and Delinquency; 57(3), p 331-354.
    "In this vein, choloization can be understood as a by-product of the acculturation process where unacculturated youth are more likely to be marginalized from mainstream society, resulting in their conscious rejection of the conventional social order and in the creation of an alternative social world (i.e., the gang)" (p. 333).
    Morrell, E. (2006). Critical participatory action research and the literacy achievement of ethnic minority youth. Paper presented at 55th Annual Yearbook of the National Reading Conference 55th annual.
    “The youth, in nearly every instance, were clearly implicated in the problems under study. This personal, invested stance added to the urgency and passion in the research, also a unique and important positionality” (Morrell, p. 8, 2006).
    Quijada Cerecer, D A. (2011). Resist This! Embodying the Contradictory Positions and Collective Possibilities of Transformative Resistance. QSE. International journal of qualitative studies in education, 24(5), 587-593.
    The authors identify that the article will provide answers to the question, "what constitutes resistance and how does it operate in and through YPAR?" One answer to the question is "YPAR is itself a position of powerful transformation. From this position we listen closely and work collaboratively with young people who see, name their experiences and concerns, and conduct original research in order to transform oppressive conditions underlying our everyday lives." (p.590) and it provides students with confidence and agency in a Freirian subject-not-object sort of way.
    Rios, V. M. (2010). Navigating the thin line between education and incarceration: An action research case study on gang-associated Latino youth. Journal of education for students placed at risk (JESPAR), 15(1-2), p. 200-212.
    "Another Mexican American youth, Steven, a 19-year-old who had dropped out of school, pinpointed the day he believed he lost faith in school and decided to drop out: ‘The teacher chose . . . me, and the White guy [a fellow student], he said, "Oh, he won’t know the answer. He’s Mexican." The teacher didn’t say anything.' When asked how he felt about this, he said, ‘I felt like shit, so I just skip school. Go to a friend’s house, help my parents with work, do drugs, fucking just go look for fights, go to State Street. Just anything rather than school. I hate school’" (p. 208).
    Sharkey, Jill D., Shekhtmeyster, Zhanna., Chavez-Lopez, Lizbeth., Norris, Elizabeth., Sass, Laura. (2011): The protective influence of gangs: Can schools compensate?: Aggression and Violent Behavior 16 (2011), 45-54.
    “With periodic panic over youth violence in schools, school authorities are particularly worried about the safety of student body. Unfortunately, many have responded with surveillance, security guards, perimeter fences, police presence, and separation of the at-risk students. These practices ignore the importance of school climate and create distance between students and their teachers and administrators. Students in such an atmosphere of distrust may turn away from role models at school and feel further motivation to join a gang.” (51)
    Streb, M. & William, M. (2001). Building Citizenship: How Student Voice in Service-Learning Develops Civic Values.Social Science Quarterly: Blackwell Publishing Limited); 82:1, p154-170.
    "In order for the service experience to be effective in boosting civic involvement among the participants, service-learning programs must have the students involved in leadership positions, directing the project themselves rather than having the teacher administering the project; students must have a voice in the process. Previous work (Morgan, 1995; Melchior, 1998) suggests that this factor is significant in making service-learning a long-lasting, successful experience for the students. This argument is consistent with the views of such educational luminaries as John Dewey (1916), who thought that it was through such experiential learning that students would develop the skills needed to participate in a democracy."

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  4. page Creating Effective Assessments, Creating Rubrics & Criteria, Grading edited Week 4: Creating Effective Assessments, Creating Rubrics & Criteria, Grading Chang, C. and Ts…
    Week 4: Creating Effective Assessments, Creating Rubrics & Criteria, Grading
    Chang, C. and Tseng, K. Using a Web-based portfolio assessment system to elevate project-based learning performances.
    "Self-assessment is regarded as the most important aspect of portfolio assessment, and therefore assessment should not rely solely on the scores given by teachers" (Popham, 2002).
    Cho, G. & DeCastro-Ambrosetti, D. & Synergism in Learning: A Critical Reflection of Authentic Assessment. The High School journal (2005) vol. 89 issue: 1 pg. 57
    "The assignment serves as the final exam for a class which focuses on adolescence issues and a teaching methods class for pre-service and in-service secondary teachers. It is known as the "synthesis of knowledge" project."
    The actual assignment for students-"For this final assignment, you are given the opportunity to use whatever strengths/talents you may have to demonstrate what you have learned this semester. You must include and thoroughly explore each topic listed in the syllabus. We offer this assignment as an option because we understand that each of you has a different learning style(s). Take this opportunity to express yourself, but remember to thoroughly address each concept."
    “The students’ projects went beyond our expectations.”
    Cox, K. (2011). Putting classroom grading on the table: A reform in progress. American Secondary Education Journal. v40 n1 p67-87, Fall 2011.
    “Standards-based report cards may have become commonplace at the elementary level, but at the secondary level, report cards look pretty much as they did when the Committee of Ten convened in 1892 to consider high school reform.”
    “Report cards remain the principal vehicle for communicating course grades, grades that become part of a student’s permanent file and transcript. The current design in LSSD, and not unusual for secondary schools, is a letter grade for achievement (A-F) and a citizenship grade, satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Neither of these marks provides an opportunity for teachers to report students’ work habits.”
    Crisp, G T. (2012). Integrative Assessment: Reframing Assessment Practice for Current and Future Learning. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 37(1), 33-43.
    "This paper proposes that teachers should strive to incorporate four different types of assessment tasks throughout a programme of study, namely diagnostic, formative, integrative and summative tasks, and that the outcomes and reward mechanisms for different assessment types be explained more clearly to students."
    Dunbar, L. (2011). “Performance assessment of the masses in 30 seconds or less.” General Music Today. 25(2). 31-35.
    “Once the concept is broken down into smaller, observable pieces, select the ones that will apply the most to the lesson. These parts will be easier to observe but will also allow students to focus on smaller parts as well” (p. 32).
    Epstein, T., Mayorga, E., & Nelson, J. (2011). Teaching about Race in an Urban History Class: The Effects of Culturally Responsive Teaching. Journal Of Social Studies Research, 35(1), 2-21.
    "Ms. Vega drew on her and her students‟ personal experiences with agency, racism, and government authority to introduce topics and to compare and contrast students‟ experiences with those of historical or contemporary actors. She also used a variety of instructional strategies (historical and contemporary readings, discussions, research, documentaries, writing) to engage students, thereby providing a range of opportunities for students to reflect on what they learned."
    Gallavan, N P. & Kottler, E. (2009). Constructing rubrics and assessing progress collaboratively with social studies students. The social studies, 100(4), 154-159.
    "As teachers and families attempt to increase student engagement, responsibility, and satisfaction in the learning process, teachers must give their students more voice, choice, and agency or social ownership (Bandura 1989). Through collaboration in designing assignments, constructing rubrics, and assessing progress, students become immersed in the complexities of assessment" (p. 154).
    Hewitt, G. (2001). The writing portfolio: Assessment starts with a. The Clearing House, 74(4), 187-90.
    "The danger is that students write for perfection rather than to explore their feelings and ideas, forming a rigid posture toward the act of writing..." (Hewitt, 2001, p. 2).
    Lovorn, G. Michael & Reza Rezaei, Ali. Assessing the Assessment: Rubrics Trainign for Pre-service and New In-Service Teachers. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation (2011) vol.16 issue: 1 pg. 2.
    Maniotes, L K. (2010). Teaching in the zone: Formative assessments for critical thinking. Library Media Connection, 29(1), 36-39.
    Maniotes (2010) states is her article that, "through formative assessments we can recognize gaps in learning, and find ways to coach students to improve."(p. 37) The article also goes over some ways we can get data in our classroom, which could be really helpful for our inquiry!
    McNair, S. (2004). "A" Is for Assessment. Science and children, 42(1), 24-27. http://ucelinks.cdlib.org:8888/sfx_local?sid=CAPTURE:CAPTURE&month=9&issn=0036%2D8148&issue=1&atitle=%22A%22%20Is%20for%20Assessment&title=Science%20and%20children&volume=42&genre=article&date=2004&spage=24&epage=27&aulast=McNair&aufirst=Shannan&auinit=S
    Muñoz, A; Jaime, Angela L. ; McGriff, Deborah L; and Molina, Adrian H. (2012). Assessment of student learning: Estudios chicana/o cultivating critical cultural thinking." Teaching Sociology 40(34) 34-49.
    Pekrun, Reinhard, Goetz Thomas: Measuring Emotions in students’ Learning and Performance: Jan 2001.
    Rieg, S. A (2007). Classroom assessment strategies: What do students at-risk and teachers perceive as effective and useful? Journal of Instructional Psychology (34)4, 214-225.
    “Students who share in the assessment process perceive more control of, and more responsibility for, their learning; therefore, students can, and should help to determine the criteria by which their work will be judged as this gives students a feeling of empowerment and makes evaluation feel less punitive” (Brookhart, 1997; Kohn, 1993).
    Robert, L (2000). Assessments and accountability. Educational Researcher,
    29 (2), 4-16.
    "Tests and assessments are relatively inexpensive. Compared to changes that involve increasing instructional time, reducing class size, attracting more able people to teaching, hiring teacher aides, or implementing program-matic changes that involve substantial professional development for teachers, assessment is cheap."
    Stix, A. (1996). Creating Rubrics through Negotiable Contracting and Assessment. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED411273
    "But what if students were given the opportunity to understand -- and help decide -- the criteria for good work? What if instead of simply adding up right answers on a final exam, a teacher also regularly assessed the strengths and weaknesses of each student's learning process: that is, how each youngster approaches problem-solving. And what if students reinforce their learning by helping to teach one another?"(p. 3).
    Strouthopoulos, C. & Peterson, J. (2011). From rigidity to freedom: An English department's journey in rethinking how we teach and assess writing. Teaching English in the two-year college 39(1), 43-62. **http://tinyurl.com/7t4nx9z**
    "In discussing these dilemmas the Rubric Solutions group came to believe the fault partly lay in multi-trait rubrics and the power we had inadvertently let them exert over our department. In codifying what we assessed, they implicitly shifted how we taught. Focusing on these traits de-emphasized writing as a holistic endeavor by breaking down and simplifying it into the sum total of these traits. Students could add them all together, almost like a math equation, and voila! Their explicit goal—a good grade—would be achieved. In short, we realized we had de-emphasized the less tangible heart and soul of writing: the emotional connection that really moved us. And important questions were raised. If these less tangible aspects really matter to us, where did and should they fit into our grading? More importantly, why were we not being more transparent to our students about what we valued?"
    Wiggins, G. (1989, May). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Kappan, 92(7), 1-13.
    “Standardized tests have no more effect on a student’s intellectual health than taking a pulse has on a patient’s physical health” (Wiggins, p. 84, 1989).
    Additional Resources:
    **http://rubistar.4teachers.org/**

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  5. page Haberman Star Teacher Interview Model edited Click on the file below to learn more about the Haberman interview model for teacher interviews. …
    Click on the file below to learn more about the Haberman interview model for teacher interviews.
    {Haberman_Star_Teacher_Research_Wendy_Fierro.pdf}

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