Research on Using Experiential Exercises and Simulations

Montablbano, L & Ige W. D. (2011). Performance in the Classroom: A Teaching Tool. Communication Teacher. (25:2) pp 100-107.

"Giving voice to or disclosing their own stories allows them to become more self-aware, to understand others, and to approach diverse and sensitive topics carefully that may otherwise go mute, on a deeper, more engaging level.The treatment of self-disclosure in the classroom can be rewarding when it is conducted in a non-threatening, non-judgmental atmosphere of trust. This trust takes time and commitment to develop in the teacher-student relationship. Once established, the personal narrative exercise can be an engaging experience for all in the class."

Cramer, E P. (2012). Using Experiential Exercises to Teach about Diversity, Oppression, and Social Justice. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(1), 1-13.
"Consider students' own prior experiences, and be aware of the emotional impact of experiential learning projects, especially when dealing with sensitive issues" (Cramer 2012, p. 10).

Gorton, W., & Havercroft, J. (2012). Using historical simulations to teach political theory. Journal Of Political Science Education, 8(1), 50-68.
Something I thought was beneficial from this is that students would write emails and ask questions to the professor in character of whoever they were being in the simulation.
**//http://blog.ted.com/2010/03/17/gaming_can_make///**
In the history aspect of the article it interesting linked the experientials to the gaming industry though it did say that the first experientials were non-computerized.


Sanyal, R. and Neves, J. (1999)
 “Teaching contentious cross-cultural issues through an experiential exercise.” Journal of Teaching in International Business. 10(2), pgs. 17-30.
“…the teaching of the material, use of examples, and nature of students assignments, implicitly endorses the polycentric approach. However, there may be little effort to understand, relate to, or empathize with the foreign culture, or getting into the shoes of the other person” (pg. 20).


http://kristinandjerry.name/jerry_teaching/work_sample_2/Work%20Sample%20Materials/Experiential%20Education%20Readings/Student%20Centered%20Learning%20In%20Experiential%20Education%20-%20Estes.pdf
“The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of inconsistencies between espoused values, and values in practice, effecting teacher and student power relationships during the facilitation of experiential education programs. Awareness is a first step towards meaningful change, and this article is a catalyst for generating more conversations about this issue.”


Rose, J., Paisley, K. (2012): White Privilege in Experiential Education: A Critical Reflection, Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 34:2, 136-154.

“I engaged debriefing and processing techniques as a form of communicative domination consistent with a teacher-centered rather than student-centered education. By (re)interpreting the students’ comments through my own lenses, I painted my reality as if it were everyone’s reality. My interpretation of our experiences was privileged in our group’s discourses. I failed to understand how my experiences and suggestions came from a racialized experience that was rarely, if ever, acknowledged in my upbringing and development as a person, as a professional, and as a White man. I saw my own personal and professional experiences as being normative and successful without any cultural, social, political, or racial privileges.” (138)

Wirkala, C. Kuhn D. 2011. Problem- Based Learning in K-12 Education: Is it Effective and How Does it Achieve its Effects.American Educational Research Journal. 48(5), pp. 1157-1186
" Far from being ‘‘unstructured,’’ its advocates claim, good PBL instruction requires complex, carefully designed instructional protocols, including well-designed scaffolding during each stage of the process (Davies, 2000; Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007). Schwartz and Bransford (1998) and Schwartz and Martin (2004) in fact advocate a method that begins with one or more problems but integrates segments of direct instruction at specific junctures at which students have gained sufficient experience to make use of it" (pg. 1158).


Scott, R M. (2000). Developing StoryWeb Units That Integrate the Internet and Social Studies.
"Such a unit engages students personally in living history. Differentiating content, product and process enhances the learners motivation by increasing their choice and control over their own learning. The assumption of characters assist students in gaining perspective and empathy as they create their own understanding of the events of the War of Independence."


Cramer, E., Natsuko, R., Nguyen, P. (2012) Using Experiential Exercises to Teach about Diversity, Oppression, and Social Justice. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(1), 1-13.
"The self discovery model is widely used in cross-cultural learning, particularly in order to increase students' awareness of their own beliefs and attitudes toward other cultural groups. Through activities such as group discussions and case studies, students reflect upon and become more sensitive to their cultural values, biases, thoughts and feelings." (Cramer et al. 2012, pg. 5)


Wehbi, S. (2011). Reflections on Experiential Teaching Methods: Linking the Classroom to Practice. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 31(5), 493-504.
"In their experience-based learning model, Gibbons and Gray (2004) proposed four interconnected components: (a) integration of theory and practice, classroom and field, (b) critical thinking skills, (c) collaboration, and (d) self-directed and independent learning." (p.493)

"most students expressed a sense of empowerment and hopefulness that extended beyond the limits of" (p. 494)


Dreis, J. (2008). Recasting the Senior Year. The Education Digest, 74(2), 34-38.
"Besides feeling entitled as se- niors yet bored with familiar school routines, they acknowledged feel- ings of uncertainty and confusion about the future. Many expressed a desire for greater independence, new experiences, a voice in what they learned, cin opportunity to lead and give back to the community, more interaction with adults, and connections with the real world. Seniors are in a profound stage of differentiation as they prepare to make the transition from childhood to adulthood."


**//http://jme.sagepub.com/content/29/6/888.short//**
Experiential exercises result in growth that is difficult to achieve with the use of a simple text, to not say impossible. The article is composed of various experiential exercises using poetry and visual arts


**//http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED501311.pdf//**
"Critical thinking skills are most effectively developed and learned when they are taught in conjunction or embedded with content, not in isolation" (p. 9)


Qualters, D M. (2010). Bringing the Outside in: Assessing Experiential Education. New directions for teaching and learning, (124), 55-62.
"However, to gather valuable data about learning during an experience, we must understand the process of the learning; we must reflect on it and reorganize the learning to make students aware of what they have actually learned and how it connects with previous learning and discipline theory."(p. 58)


Davis, M. & Guthrie, J. (2003). Motivating struggling readers in middle school through an engagement model of classroom practice. In Reading & writing quarterly. 19(1) pgs.59-85
"When students have experienced a gradual expansion of topic, content, and text over a time period of four weeks or more, they become authentically motivated to read in a domain as broadly construed as science (Guthrie, 1999)."


Romero Zaldivar, V. (2012). Monitoring Student Progress Using Virtual Appliances: A Case Study. Computers & education, 58(4), 1058-1067.
“When moving away from traditional lecture-based teaching models into active learning strategies, the level of student participation increases. In active learning scenarios the student is at the center of the process, and the level of interaction among students, students and instructors, and students with course resources is essential for the success of the process” (p. 1058).