Week 4: Creating Effective Assessments, Creating Rubrics & Criteria, Grading

Chang, C. and Tseng, K. Using a Web-based portfolio assessment system to elevate project-based learning performances.
  • "Self-assessment is regarded as the most important aspect of portfolio assessment, and therefore assessment should not rely solely on the scores given by teachers" (Popham, 2002).

Cho, G. & DeCastro-Ambrosetti, D. & Synergism in Learning: A Critical Reflection of Authentic Assessment. The High School journal (2005) vol. 89 issue: 1 pg. 57
  • "The assignment serves as the final exam for a class which focuses on adolescence issues and a teaching methods class for pre-service and in-service secondary teachers. It is known as the "synthesis of knowledge" project."
  • The actual assignment for students-"For this final assignment, you are given the opportunity to use whatever strengths/talents you may have to demonstrate what you have learned this semester. You must include and thoroughly explore each topic listed in the syllabus. We offer this assignment as an option because we understand that each of you has a different learning style(s). Take this opportunity to express yourself, but remember to thoroughly address each concept."
  • “The students’ projects went beyond our expectations.”

Cox, K. (2011). Putting classroom grading on the table: A reform in progress. American Secondary Education Journal. v40 n1 p67-87, Fall 2011.
  • “Standards-based report cards may have become commonplace at the elementary level, but at the secondary level, report cards look pretty much as they did when the Committee of Ten convened in 1892 to consider high school reform.”
  • “Report cards remain the principal vehicle for communicating course grades, grades that become part of a student’s permanent file and transcript. The current design in LSSD, and not unusual for secondary schools, is a letter grade for achievement (A-F) and a citizenship grade, satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Neither of these marks provides an opportunity for teachers to report students’ work habits.”

Crisp, G T. (2012). Integrative Assessment: Reframing Assessment Practice for Current and Future Learning. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 37(1), 33-43.
  • "This paper proposes that teachers should strive to incorporate four different types of assessment tasks throughout a programme of study, namely diagnostic, formative, integrative and summative tasks, and that the outcomes and reward mechanisms for different assessment types be explained more clearly to students."

Dunbar, L. (2011). “Performance assessment of the masses in 30 seconds or less.” General Music Today. 25(2). 31-35.
  • “Once the concept is broken down into smaller, observable pieces, select the ones that will apply the most to the lesson. These parts will be easier to observe but will also allow students to focus on smaller parts as well” (p. 32).

Epstein, T., Mayorga, E., & Nelson, J. (2011). Teaching about Race in an Urban History Class: The Effects of Culturally Responsive Teaching. Journal Of Social Studies Research, 35(1), 2-21.
  • "Ms. Vega drew on her and her students‟ personal experiences with agency, racism, and government authority to introduce topics and to compare and contrast students‟ experiences with those of historical or contemporary actors. She also used a variety of instructional strategies (historical and contemporary readings, discussions, research, documentaries, writing) to engage students, thereby providing a range of opportunities for students to reflect on what they learned."

Gallavan, N P. & Kottler, E. (2009). Constructing rubrics and assessing progress collaboratively with social studies students. The social studies, 100(4), 154-159.
  • "As teachers and families attempt to increase student engagement, responsibility, and satisfaction in the learning process, teachers must give their students more voice, choice, and agency or social ownership (Bandura 1989). Through collaboration in designing assignments, constructing rubrics, and assessing progress, students become immersed in the complexities of assessment" (p. 154).

Hewitt, G. (2001). The writing portfolio: Assessment starts with a. The Clearing House, 74(4), 187-90.
  • "The danger is that students write for perfection rather than to explore their feelings and ideas, forming a rigid posture toward the act of writing..." (Hewitt, 2001, p. 2).

Lovorn, G. Michael & Reza Rezaei, Ali. Assessing the Assessment: Rubrics Trainign for Pre-service and New In-Service Teachers. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation (2011) vol.16 issue: 1 pg. 2.

Maniotes, L K. (2010). Teaching in the zone: Formative assessments for critical thinking. Library Media Connection, 29(1), 36-39.
  • Maniotes (2010) states is her article that, "through formative assessments we can recognize gaps in learning, and find ways to coach students to improve."(p. 37) The article also goes over some ways we can get data in our classroom, which could be really helpful for our inquiry!

McNair, S. (2004). "A" Is for Assessment. Science and children, 42(1), 24-27. http://ucelinks.cdlib.org:8888/sfx_local?sid=CAPTURE:CAPTURE&month=9&issn=0036%2D8148&issue=1&atitle=%22A%22%20Is%20for%20Assessment&title=Science%20and%20children&volume=42&genre=article&date=2004&spage=24&epage=27&aulast=McNair&aufirst=Shannan&auinit=S

Muñoz, A; Jaime, Angela L. ; McGriff, Deborah L; and Molina, Adrian H. (2012). Assessment of student learning: Estudios chicana/o cultivating critical cultural thinking." Teaching Sociology 40(34) 34-49.


Pekrun, Reinhard, Goetz Thomas: Measuring Emotions in students’ Learning and Performance: Jan 2001.

Rieg, S. A (2007). Classroom assessment strategies: What do students at-risk and teachers perceive as effective and useful? Journal of Instructional Psychology (34)4, 214-225.
  • “Students who share in the assessment process perceive more control of, and more responsibility for, their learning; therefore, students can, and should help to determine the criteria by which their work will be judged as this gives students a feeling of empowerment and makes evaluation feel less punitive” (Brookhart, 1997; Kohn, 1993).

Robert, L (2000). Assessments and accountability. Educational Researcher,
29 (2), 4-16.
  • "Tests and assessments are relatively inexpensive. Compared to changes that involve increasing instructional time, reducing class size, attracting more able people to teaching, hiring teacher aides, or implementing program-matic changes that involve substantial professional development for teachers, assessment is cheap."

Stix, A. (1996). Creating Rubrics through Negotiable Contracting and Assessment. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED411273
  • "But what if students were given the opportunity to understand -- and help decide -- the criteria for good work? What if instead of simply adding up right answers on a final exam, a teacher also regularly assessed the strengths and weaknesses of each student's learning process: that is, how each youngster approaches problem-solving. And what if students reinforce their learning by helping to teach one another?"(p. 3).

Strouthopoulos, C. & Peterson, J. (2011). From rigidity to freedom: An English department's journey in rethinking how we teach and assess writing. Teaching English in the two-year college 39(1), 43-62. **http://tinyurl.com/7t4nx9z**
  • "In discussing these dilemmas the Rubric Solutions group came to believe the fault partly lay in multi-trait rubrics and the power we had inadvertently let them exert over our department. In codifying what we assessed, they implicitly shifted how we taught. Focusing on these traits de-emphasized writing as a holistic endeavor by breaking down and simplifying it into the sum total of these traits. Students could add them all together, almost like a math equation, and voila! Their explicit goal—a good grade—would be achieved. In short, we realized we had de-emphasized the less tangible heart and soul of writing: the emotional connection that really moved us. And important questions were raised. If these less tangible aspects really matter to us, where did and should they fit into our grading? More importantly, why were we not being more transparent to our students about what we valued?"

Wiggins, G. (1989, May). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Kappan, 92(7), 1-13.
  • “Standardized tests have no more effect on a student’s intellectual health than taking a pulse has on a patient’s physical health” (Wiggins, p. 84, 1989).


Additional Resources:

**http://rubistar.4teachers.org/**